Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut
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Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut

Effects on Human Health and Disease
 EPUB
Sofort lieferbar | Lieferzeit: Sofort lieferbar I
ISBN-13:
9780124079410
Einband:
EPUB
Seiten:
268
Autor:
Daniele Del Rio
eBook Typ:
Adobe Digital Editions
eBook Format:
EPUB
Kopierschutz:
Adobe DRM [Hard-DRM]
Sprache:
Englisch
Beschreibung:

Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases. State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets - including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease - are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways. Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development.One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and diseaseExperts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approachesClear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations
Drawing on expert opinions from the fields of nutrition, gut microbiology, mammalian physiology, and immunology, Diet-Microbe Interactions for Human Health investigates the evidence for a unified disease mechanism working through the gut and its resident microbiota, and linking many inflammation-related chronic diet associated diseases. State of the art post-genomic studies can highlight the important role played by our resident intestinal microbiota in determining human health and disease. Many chronic human diseases associated with modern lifestyles and diets - including those localized to the intestinal tract like inflammatory bowel disease and celiac disease, and more pervasive systemic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease - are characterized by aberrant profiles of gut bacteria or their metabolites. Many of these diseases have an inflammatory basis, often presenting with a chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, hinting at persistent and inappropriate activation of inflammatory pathways. Through the presentation and analysis of recent nutrition studies, this book discusses the possible mechanisms underpinning the disease processes associated with these pathologies, with high fat diets appearing to predispose to disease, and biologically active plant components, mainly fiber and polyphenols, appearing to reduce the risk of chronic disease development.One comprehensive, translational source for all aspects of nutrition and diet's effect on gastrointestinal health and diseaseExperts in nutrition, diet, microbiology and immunology take readers from the bench research (cellular and biochemical mechanisms of vitamins and nutrients) to new preventive and therapeutic approachesClear presentations by leading researchers of the cellular mechanisms underlying diet, immune response, and gastrointestinal disease help practicing nutritionists and clinicians (gastroenterologists, endocrinologists) map out new areas for clinical research and structuring clinical recommendations
1;Front Cover;12;Diet-Microbe Interactions in the Gut;4
3;Copyright Page;5
4;Contents;6
5;Foreword;10
6;Acknowledgements;12
7;List of Contributors;14
8;1 The Microbiota of the Human Gastrointestinal Tract: A Molecular View;16
8.1;Introduction;16
8.2;Gut Microbiota Metabolism in Health and Disease;16
8.3;Methodologies for Studying the Human Gut Microbiota;18
8.3.1;Measuring Species Richness and Variability;18
8.3.2;Estimating Microbial Relative Abundance within the Gut Microbiota using Culture-Independent Methods;19
8.3.3;Measuring Microbial Activity;20
8.4;Spatial Distribution of the Gut Microbiota and Interactions with Diet;21
8.4.1;The Stomach;21
8.4.2;The Small Intestine (Jejunum and Ileum);22
8.4.3;The Colon (Large Intestine);23
8.5;Models to Study Microbial Ecology;25
8.6;Conclusions;26
8.7;References;26
9;2 A Nutritional Anthropology of the Human Gut Microbiota;32
9.1;Human Diet or Microbiota, Which Came First?;32
9.2;Metagenomics and Cultivation-Independent Assessment of Human Gut Microbiota;33
9.3;Microbiome and Human Nutritional Phenotype;33
9.4;The Gut Microbiota in Human Evolution;34
9.5;Population Metagenomic Variation within the Human Microbiota;36
9.5.1;Populations can be Separated by Characteristic Differences in the Gut Microbiota;36
9.6;The Western Diet Metagenome is Obesity Prone;39
9.7;Conclusions;40
9.8;References;40
10;3 Probiotic Microorganisms for Shaping the Human Gut Microbiota - Mechanisms and Efficacy into the Future;42
10.1;Introduction;42
10.2;Let's Start With the Definition of Probiotics;42
10.3;Shaping the Microbiota;43
10.4;The Neonatal Period;44
10.5;Adult Life and the Proposed Enterotype Classification;46
10.6;The Aged Period;47
10.7;Mechanisms and Efficacy;48
10.8;Efficacy in Healthy People;48
10.9;Conclusions;52
10.10;References;52
11;4 Bifidobacteria of the Human Gut: Our Special Friends;56
11.1;Taxonomy of Bifidobacteria;56
11.2;Bifidobacterial Ecology;58
11.3;Bifidobacterial Populations in the Human Gut;58
11.4;Bifidobacteria as Probiotics;59
11.5;Bifidobacterial Genomics;60
11.6;Comparative Genomics and Bifidobacteria;61
11.7;Interaction Between Bifidobacteria and Their Hosts;62
11.7.1;Exopolysaccharides (EPS);62
11.7.2;Pilus-Like Structure;62
11.7.3;Serine Protease Inhibitor;63
11.7.4;Bacteriocins;63
11.8;Conclusions;63
11.9;References;64
12;5 Shaping the Human Microbiome with Prebiotic Foods - Current Perspectives for Continued Development;68
12.1;Introduction;68
12.2;Linking Microbiome Structure and Function;69
12.3;Probiotics;70
12.4;Prebiotics;71
12.5;Testing Prebiotics;74
12.6;Conclusion;80
12.7;References;81
13;6 Bioactivation of High-Molecular-Weight Polyphenols by the Gut Microbiome;88
13.1;Introduction;88
13.2;Proanthocyanidins;88
13.2.1;Structures and Nomenclature;88
13.2.2;Distribution in the Plant Kingdom: From Ecological Role to Behavior during Gastrointestinal Transit;89
13.2.3;Variability and Proanthocyanidin Determination in Foods;91
13.2.4;Dietary Sources, Intake and Health Benefits;91
13.2.5;Fate of Proanthocyanidins through the Digestive Tract;92
13.2.5.1;In Vitro Biotransformation;94
13.2.5.2;In Vivo Biotransformation;99
13.3;Hydrolyzable Tannins (Gallotannins and Ellagitannins);100
13.3.1;Chemistry of Hydrolyzable Tannins (Gallotannins and Ellagitannins);101
13.3.2;Occurrence and Dietary Sources;102
13.3.3;Metabolism of Hydrolyzable Tannins in Humans;105
13.3.4;Protective Effects of Hydrolyzable Tannins Intake in Human Subjects;111
13.4;Conclusions;113
13.5;References;113
14;7 Gut Microbial Metabolism of Plant Lignans: Influence on Human Health;118
14.1;Introduction;118
14.2;Conversion of Plant Lignans to Enterolignans by Gut Bacteria;119
14.3;Associations Between Lignan Exposure and Human Health;122
14.3.1;Cancer;122
14.3.1.1;Colorectal Cancer;123
14.3.1.2;Breast Cancer;123
14.3.1.3;Prostate Cancer;124
14.3.2;Cardiovascular Disease;125
14.3.3;Other Health Effects;125
14.4;Interindividual Differences in Lignan Metabolism;125
14.4.1;Diet;126
14.4.2;Sex Differences i

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