This is not a book of learning, but I have required a great deal of help in putting it together, and I cannot close this prefatory note without acknowledging my in debtedness to more kind friends than I have space to name. Most of all I owe to Mr. E. L. Burlingame, of Scribner's Magazine, and to my father, Dr. H. O. Dwight, without whose encouragement, moral and material, during many months, I could never have afforded the luxury of writing a book. I am also under obligation to their Excellencies, J. G. A. Leishman, O. S. Straus, and W. W. Rockhill, American ambassadors to the Porte, and especially to the last, for cards of admis sion, letters of introduction, and other facilities for col lecting material. Among many others who have taken the trouble to give me assistance of one kind or another I particularly wish to express my acknowledgments to Arthur Baker, Esq.; to Mgr. Christophoros, Bishop of Pera; to F. Mortimer Clapp, Esq.; to Feridoun Bey.