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Autor: Yevgeny A. Gayev
ISBN-13: 9781402053856
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Seiten: 412
Sprache: Englisch
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Flow and Transport Processes with Complex Obstructions

236, Nato Science Series II:
Applications to Cities, Vegetative Canopies and Industry
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Flow and Transport Processes in Complex Obstructed Geometries: from Cities and Vegetative Canopies to Engineering Problems, held in Kyiv, Ukraine, May 4-15, 2004
This is the first book that reviews problems in different fluid mechanics disciplines that led to the concept of canopy, or penetrable roughness. Despite their diversity, many flows may be theoretically united by means of introducing distributed sinks and/or sources of momentum and heat and mass. These and other flows in engineering and environmental situations over surfaces with many obstacles are reviewed in terms of general concepts of fluid mechanics.
Preface.- 1. Canopies, or EPRs; Ye. Gayev.- 1.1. Vegetative canopies in meteorology.- 1.2. Vegetated river beds.- 1.3. Urban canopies.- 1.4. Spraying coolers.- 1.5. Other examples of EPR.- 1.6. Laboratory modelling of the canopy flows.- 1.7. Preliminary conclusion. Turbulence.-
2. Discrete and continuum models; J.C.R. Hunt et al..- 2.1. Introduction.- 2.2. Over/through canopies.- 2.3. Computational models.- 2.4. Dispersion in canopies.- 2.5. Conclusion.- 2.6. Appendix A: Dispersion in street canyon.- 2.7. Appendix B: Notation and abbreviations.-
3. EPR of different structure; Ye. Gayev.- 3.1. EPR of immobile elements.- 3.2. EPRs made up of mobile elements.- 3.3. Turbulence in EPRs.-
4. Flow in vegetation canopies; R.H. Shaw.- 4.1. Introduction.- 4.2. Flow Above The Canopy.- 4.3. Flow Within The Canopy.- 4.4. Computational Representations of Canopy Flow.- 4.5. Higher-Order Closure Schemes.- 4.6. Large-Eddy Simulation.- 4.7. Contribution of Canopy Elements.- 4.8. Conditional Sampling and Composite Averaging.- 4.9. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) Analysis.- 4.10. Summary.-
5. Topography and stable stratification; J. Finnigan.- 5.1. Introduction.- 5.2. The windfield over a canopy covered hill.- 5.3. The scalar field over a canopy covered hill.- 5.4. Stable Stratification.- 5.5. Summary and conclusions.-
6. Aquatic Canopies; H. Nepf et al.- 6.1. Introduction: Comparison of Aquatic and Terrestrial Canopies.- 6.2. Emergent Canopies.- 6.3. Diffusion within Emergent Vegetation.- 6.4. Submerged Canopies.- 6.5. Summary.-
7. Vorticity annihilation, inviscid blocking; I. Eames et al.- 7.1. Introduction.- 7.2. Vorticity annihilation.- 7.3. Inviscid blocking.- 7.4. Modelling drag forces.- 7.5. Bubbly flows: high void fraction, high Re.- 7.6. Concluding remarks.-
8. Fires in Porous Media; R.N. Meroney.- 8.1. Introduction.- 8.2. Forest and wildland fire statistics.- 8.3. Historic large urban fires.- 8.4. Fire classification.- 8.5. Modeling methodologies.- 8.6. Forest and urban climate meteorology.- 8.7. Fluid mechanics of fires and porous canopies.- 8.8. Fire whirls and fire tornadoes.- 8.9. Numerical Modeling Fire Whirls.- 8.10. Conclusions and recommendations.-
9. Air emergencies and urban weather; A. Baklanov.- 9.1. Introduction.- 9.2. Applications to Urban Meteorology and Air Quality.- 9.3. Applications to Emergency Preparedness.- Conclusion.-
Bibliography.- Index.
The NATO Advanced Study Institute “Flow and Transport Processes in Complex - structed Geometries: from cities and vegetative canopies to engineering problems” was held in Kyiv, Ukraine in the period of May 4 - 15, 2004. This book based on the papers presented there provides an overview of this new area in ?uid mechanics and its app- cations that have developed over the past three decades. The subject, whose origins lie both in theory and in practice, is now rapidly developing in many directions. The focus of applied ?uid mechanics research has steadily been shifting from - gineering to environmental applications. In both ?elds there has been great interest in the study of ?ows around obstacles; initially single isolated obstacles, and then groups, together with the e?ects of nearby resistive surfaces, such as the walls of a pipe, the ground or a free surface in hydraulics. Simpli?ed theoretical analysis began with studies of axisymmetric and cylind- cal free-mounted bodies. However other methods had to be used for quantifying the complete ?ow ?elds past arbitrary blu? bodies, either by using experiments or, when powerful computers became available, by direct calculation and solution of the full equations of ?uid dynamics. In most practical cases the Reynolds numbers are too large to compute all the small scale eddy motions which therefore have to be described statistically.

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Autor: Yevgeny A. Gayev
ISBN-13 :: 9781402053856
ISBN: 1402053851
Erscheinungsjahr: 17.11.2006
Verlag: Springer Netherland
Seiten: 412
Sprache: Englisch
Auflage 2007
Sonstiges: Ebook