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Autor: James Jaccard
ISBN-13: 9781606233986
Einband: PDF
Seiten: 391
Sprache: Englisch
eBook Typ: PDF
eBook Format: PDF
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Theory Construction and Model-Building Skills

Methodology in the Social Sciences
A Practical Guide for Social Scientists
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Meeting a crucial need for graduate students and newly minted researchers, this innovative text provides hands-on tools for generating ideas and translating them into formal theories. It is illustrated with numerous practical examples drawn from multiple social science disciplines and research settings. The authors offer clear guidance for defining constructs, thinking through relationships and processes that link constructs, and deriving new theoretical models (or building on existing ones) based on those relationships. Step by step, they show readers how to use causal analysis, mathematical modeling, simulations, and grounded and emergent approaches to theory construction. A chapter on writing about theories contains invaluable advice on crafting effective papers and grant applications.  Useful pedagogical features in every chapter include: *Application exercises and concept exercises. *Lists of key terms and engaging topical boxes. *Annotated suggestions for further reading.
I. BASIC CONCEPTS 1. Introduction Organization of the Book Theories and Settings 2. The Nature of Understanding The Nature of Reality How Reality Is Experienced Concepts: The Building Blocks of Understanding The Nature of Concepts Concepts, Constructs, and Variables Conceptual Systems: The Bases for Deeper Understanding Communication Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises 3. Science as an Approach to Understanding Socially Based Approaches to Understanding Commonalities across All Shared Conceptual Approaches Special Features of the Scientific Approach The Essentials of Scientific Endeavor The Process of Theory Construction What Is a Theory? Theories, Models, and Hypotheses Types of Theories The Role of Theory in Basic versus Applied Research Characteristics of a Good Theory Science and Objectivity Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises II. Core Processes 4. Creativity and the Generation of Ideas Introduction One Small Step for Science Creativity The Creative Person Creative Ideas The Creative Process Deciding to Be Creative Practical Implications for Theory Construction Choosing What to Theorize About Literature Reviews Heuristics for Generating Ideas Idea Generation and Grounded/Emergent Theorizing Twenty-Six Heuristics When the Focus Is on Basic Mental or Biological Processes Scientists on Scientific Theorizing Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises 5. Focusing Concepts The Process of Instantiation The Nature of Conceptual Definitions Shared Meaning, Surplus Meaning, and Nomological Networks Practical Strategies for Specifying Conceptual Definitions Multidimensional Constructs Creating Constructs An Example of Specifying Conceptual Definitions Operationism Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises 6. Clarifying Relationships Using Thought Experiments Thought Experiments for Relationships in Grounded and Emergent Theory Describing Relationships with Different Types of Variables Thought Experiments for Relationships between Categorical Variables Categorical Variables with Two Levels Categorical Variables with More Than Two Levels Thought Experiments for Relationships between Quantitative Variables Scatterplots Characteristics of Linear Relationships Nonlinear Relationships When Nonlinear Relationships Are Linear A Thought Experiment with Hypothetical Scatterplots Thought Experiments for Relationships between Categorical and Quantitative Variables Thought Experiments for a Categorical Cause and a Quantitative Effect: The Use of Hypothetical Means Thought Experiments for a Quantitative Cause and a Categorical Effect: The Use of Hypothetical Probabilities Thought Experiments for Moderated Relationships Thought Experiments Using Hypothetical Factorial Designs Hypothetical Factorial Designs with More Than Two Levels Hypothetical Factorial Designs with Quantitative Variables Hypothetical Scatterplots and Quantitative Variables Summary for Moderated Relationships Broader Uses of Hypothetical Factorial Designs in Thought Experiments Relationships Characterized by Main Effects Relationships Characterized by Simple Main Effects Relationships Characterized by Interaction Contrasts Choice of the Moderator Variable Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises APPENDIX 6A. Thought Experiments for a Quantitative Cause and Categorical Effect: A Hypothetical Contingency Table Method APPENDIX 6B. Thought Experiments for Moderated Moderation III. Frameworks for Theory Construction 7. Causal Models Two Types of Relationships: Predictive and Causal Predictive Relationships Causal Relationships Causality and Grounded/Emergent Theory Types of Causal Relationships Constructing Theories with Causal Relationships Identifying Outcome Variables Identifying Direct Causes Indirect Causal Relationships Turning Direct Relationships into Indirect Relationships Partial Mediation versus Complete Mediation An Alternative Strategy for Turning Direct Effects into Indirect Effects The Essence of Mediation Moderated Causal Relationships Mediated Moderation Moderated Mediation Moderated Moderation Summary of Moderated Relationships Reciprocal or Bidirectional Causality There Is No Such Thing as Simultaneous Reciprocal Causality Feedback Loops: Adding Mediators to Reciprocal Causation Moderated Reciprocal Causation Spurious Relationships Adding Additional Outcomes Adding Effects of Effects Specifying Causal Relationships between Existing Variables Summary of Additional Steps That May Create Spuriousness Unanalyzed Relationships Expanding the Theory Further Temporal Dynamics Disturbance Terms Latent Variables, Structural Theory, and Measurement Theory Revisiting Your Literature Review Some Final Steps Perspectives on the Construction of Causal Theories Path Diagrams as Theoretical Propositions A Note on Research Design and Statistical Analysis Elaborating the Logic Underlying Each Path The Use of Causal Analysis in Grounded/Emergent Theorizing Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises 8. Mathematical Models Types of Variables: Categorical, Discrete, and Continuous Axioms and Theorems Functions Linear Functions The Slope and Intercept Deterministic versus Stochastic Models Model Parameters Adjustable Parameters and Parameter Estimation Rates and Change: Derivatives and Differentiation Instantaneous Change Second and Third Derivatives Describing Accumulation: Integrals and Integration Just-Identified, Overidentified, and Underidentified Models Metrics Types of Nonlinearity Logarithmic Functions Exponential Functions Power Functions Polynomial Functions Trigonomic Functions Choosing a Function Functions for Categorical Variables Advanced Topics: Manipulating and Combining Functions Function Transformations Combining Functions Multiple Variable Functions Phases in Building a Mathematical Model An Example Using Performance, Ability, and Motivation An Example Using Cognitive Algebra An Example Using Attitude Change An Example Using a Traditional Causal Model Chaos Theory Catastrophe Theory Additional Examples of Mathematical Models in the Social Sciences Emergent Theory Construction and Mathematical Models Summary and Concluding Comments APPENDIX 8A. SPSS Code for Exploring Distribution Properties APPENDIX 8B. Additional Modeling Issues for the Performance, Motivation, and Ability Example Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises 9. Simulation as a Theory Development Method Defining Simulations The Uses of Research Simulations The Difference between Simulation and Laboratory Experiments Basic Simulation Varieties All-Machine versus Person–Machine Simulations Descriptive versus Analytic Simulations Real-Time versus Compressed-Time versus Expanded-Time Simulations Deterministic versus Nondeterministic Simulations Free versus Experimental Simulations Macro- versus Microsimulations Content-Oriented Simulation The Analysis of Criterion Systems as a Basis for Theory Construction Simulation of Information Accessing in Consumer Purchase Decisions Virtual Environments and Avatars Simulations and Virtual Experiments Agent-Based Modeling Resources for Conducting Simulations Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises 10. Grounded and Emergent Theory Grounded and Emergent Theory: An Overview Positivism "versus" Constructivism Framing the Problem The Role of Past Literature Collecting Qualitative Data Archival Records Direct Observation Structured and Unstructured Interviews and Surveys Focus Groups Virtual Ethnographies Directive Qualitative Methods Mixed-Methods Research Memo Writing Theoretical Sampling Analyzing and Coding Data An Example from Anthropology The Statistical Exploration of Relationships Process Analysis in Emergent Theorizing Moving to Theoretical Statements: Using Principles of Rhetoric Deduction, Induction, and Abduction Toulmin's Model of Argumentation Weak Arguments APPENDIX 10A. The Limits of Information Processing Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises 11. Historically Influential Systems of Thought Grand Theories Materialism Structuralism Functionalism Symbolic Interactionism Evolutionary Perspectives Postmodernism: A Critical Commentary on Grand Theories Frameworks Using Metaphors Neural Networks Systems Theory Frameworks Emphasizing Stability and Change Psychological Frameworks Reinforcement Theories Humanism and Positive Psychology Frameworks Inspired by Methodology Multilevel Modeling Person-Centered Theorizing Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises IV. Concluding Issues 12. Reading and Writing about Theories Reading about Theories in Outlets Emphasizing Theory Tests and Confirmatory Approaches to Science The Introduction Section The Method Section The Results Section The Discussion Section Reading about Theories in Outlets Emphasizing Grounded/Emergent Theory Writing about Theories How You Say It Can Be as Important as What You Say Briefer Is Better, But Don't Be Too Brief Prepare an Outline Provide a Road Map Provide a Succinct Review of the Current Knowledge Discuss the Implications and Importance of Your Theory Keep Your Target Audience in Mind Using Figures Cite Sources for Your Ideas, Text, and Related Items Spelling, Grammar, Typos, and Punctuation Grant Proposals, Technical Reports, and Presentations Summary and Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises APPENDIX 12A. Inferring Theoretical Relationships from the Choice of Statistical Tests 13. Epilogue Competing Theories Post Hoc Theorizing Influential Science Careers and Creative Theorizing in Science Scientific Paradigms A Program of Self Study Concluding Comments Suggested Readings Key Terms Exercises

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Autor: James Jaccard
ISBN-13 :: 9781606233986
ISBN: 160623398X
Verlag: Guilford Publications
Seiten: 391
Sprache: Englisch
Sonstiges: Ebook, 25,4x17,78x cm